This glossary provides a description of many terms. You can browse through the categories above, search for the terms via the site’s search functionality or print the available pdf file.

Since the full meaning for these words is lengthy and subject to discussion, it is limited to a simple description that should allow the reader to distinguish one item from another. Examples, further descriptions and more discussion can be found in the recommended booklists and weblinks. Definitions may be used in teaching and by candidates in their assessment provided the source is cited as

The definitions were created by Nigel Bradley (and are copyright to Nigel Bradley). Publishing or reproduction requires written permission from the copyright holder, who can be contacted at

Additional entries for future revisions are welcome! Please email any suggestions to

Bradley N. (2012)  Digital Glossary
Digital Marketing Association (July 2012)


Audit Bureau of Circulations (UK).

Acquisition. Behaviour. Outcomes.

American Marketing Association (US).

Augmented Reality.

Audience Response Systems.

Active Server Page.

Advertising Space Rate.

Advertising Value Equivalence.

Automated Voice Recognition.

Computer Assisted Mobile Interviewing.

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing.

Computer Assisted Self-Completion Interviewing.

Computer Aided Standard Occupational Classification.

Computer Assisted Web Interviewing.

Consumer Generated Media.

Chartered Institute of Marketing (UK).

Cost per action.

Cost per click.

Consumer Packaged Goods.

Cost per lead.

Cost per mille (cost per thousand).

Cost per sale.

Central Processor Unit.

1) Cause-Related Marketing.
2) Customer Relationship Management.

Call to Action.

Clickthrough Rate.

Decision Making Unit.

Date of Birth.

Day of interview.

Dedicated Online Research Community.

Electronic Point Of Sale.

Employee Relationship Management.

File Transfer Protocol.



Graphics Interchange Format.

General Packet Radio Service.

Global Positioning System.

High Definition Television.

Hypertext Markup Language.

Hypertext Markup Language.

HyperText Transfer Protocol.

Information & Communication Technology.

Institute of Direct Marketing.

Instant messaging applications.

Internet protocol.

Internet Service Provider.

Information Technology.

Keyword Effectiveness Index.

Key Performance Indicator.

Marketing Decision Support System.

Management Information System.

Marketing Information System.

Multimedia Messaging Service.

Market Research Online Community.

Market Research Society.

Near-field communications.

negative word of mouth.

Online service providers.

Personal Digital Assistant.

Portable Document Format.

Paid For Inclusion.

Paid For Placement.

Person Identification Number.

Personal Identification Number.

Product Life Cycle.

Point of Display.

Paid, Owned, Earned Media.

Point of Purchase.

Point of Sale.

Pay Per Click.

Partner Relationship Management.

Positive word of mouth.

Random Access Memory.

1) Radio Frequency Identification.
2) Radio Frequency Identification Device.

Return on Investment.

Return on Marketing Investment.

Research online, purchase offline.

Search Engine Marketing.

Search engine optimisation.

Standard Industrial Classification.

Short Message Service.

Social Media Research.

Share of Voice.

Telephone Assisted Web Interviewing.

Transmission Control Protocol.

Target Group Index.

Terms of Use policy.

Total Quality Management.

1) Uniform Resource Locator.
2) Universal Resource Locator.

Unique Selling Proposition.

Wide Area Information Service.

1) Web application protocol.
2) Wireless application protocol.

Wireless Fidelity.

Windows Media Audio.

Wireless Markup Language.

eXtensible Markup Language.

Digital Marketing Glossary: A

A/B Tests
A way of testing two executions against each other, the one with the “best” result is deemed superior. Used for many years in direct mail, more recently used to compare one website design against another.

Access provider
An organisation providing services to enable a user to access the Internet. Access providers may be ISPs or OSPs.

Active Server Page
A web page, evident by the .asp file name, it uses ActiveX scripting. It includes programs that are processed on a web server before the page appears on a web browser.

A programming language standard developed by Microsoft, a competitor to Java.

Ad clicks
Number of times computer users have deliberately chosen to depress a button of a mouse or keyboard when viewing an advertising banner or advert.

Ad impression
One viewing of an advertisement by a single person. The same as Ad view. Another definition states this is the complete downloading of an advert.

Ad inventory
How many ad impressions are sold over the period of a month

Ad rotation
The use of different advert executions on the same web page, there are many reasons to rotate in this way.

Advert distribution by Google.

Ad server
If an advertisement is “delivered” from a server that is independent of the server used for the site on which it appears.

Term to describe promotional programs, which remain on a user’s computer during a usage session and display adverts to match the user.

Software used to carry out tasks for a computer user, such as to gather information or make shopping comparisons.

Aggregated buying
Buyers collectively offer to buy items to receive a volume discount (see Groupon activities).

Application software. This is computer software designed to help the user to perform a particular task.

Attrition rate
Number of visitors lost at different points in the buying process, usually expressed as a percentage.

Automated Voice Recognition (AVR)
A method of recording data by capturing the human voice in a digital form and converting it to another medium such as written words.

Software tools which automatically send an email message to somebody who registers an email address at a web site or sends an email to an email box which is set up as an autoresponder.

virtual person typically used to mimick the human being and give a personal touch to the computer environment, the avatar can be neutral or appeal to a specific segment. For marketing this can provide a voice or spokesperson who can endorse products.

Digital Marketing Glossary: B

Back office operations
The after-sales activities which allow orders placed online to be prepared and delivered to customers.

The speed of data transfer in bits per second.

Banner advertisement
A typically rectangular graphic positioned at the top of a web. Further information may be found by hovering over the banner or clicking on it. Banners may be static or dynamic (for example animated).

A website used as a personal journal and for sharing experiences. Derived from the words Web Log. Offers a PR opportunity.

Term to describe all web based personal journals (blogs) found on the Internet.

A blending of the words book and blog to indicate a published book that was derived from a blog.

A way to link devices such as phones, peripherals and computers without using wires. Technology invented by Ericsson and named after the 10th century Danish King Harald Bluetooth.

Bought (or Paid) Media
Include traditional and online advertising space that can be purchased.

1) Term used to describe the situation where an e-mail has not reached its intended recipient, effectively it has rebounded.
2) It occurs when a visitor arrives at a web page then leaves the site, effectively a single visit.

Bounce Rate
A measure of the quality of an email or web page. The percentage of visits in which users leave a web site from the page they entered. Also applies to emails that have not successfully reached their recipient.

Bricks and mortar trading
A business that deals with customers from premises rather than online.

A method of delivering information over the Internet, faster than a standard modem.

Basic web pages that are a direct transfer of existing paper leaflets, brochures and similar promotions, therefore they do not take full advantage of features available online.

A program that allows users access to pages on the worldwide web e.g. Explorer, Chrome, Firefox.

Bulletin boards
Pages on the world wide web where messages can be read and also added.

Buzz marketing
A word of mouth approach initiated by marketing managers, it uses Consumer Generated Media to encourage individuals to influence their peers in regard to the product or service.

Digital Marketing Glossary: C

Temporary storage of image or text.

Call to Action (CTA)
Something requested by the marketer to cause some act in the prospect, this may be to buy, to click through, to express an interest, to volunteer information etc.

Central Processor Unit
The main microprocessor chip found inside a PC. The CPU is on the Motherboard.

Check box
Online questionnaire feature which allows more than one option to be selected

A positive and deliberate action made by a computer user, usually by depressing the left button of a mouse.

Click and drag
Online questionnaire feature whereby an item is selected and inserted into a specific position. Sometimes called Drag and drop.

Clicks and mortar
An organisation that does business online but also does so through a physical location.

Also known as an ad click. The action of deliberately choosing to view a specific page by selecting a link, usually an advertisement that is hyperlinked to another page with full information.

Clickthrough rate (CTR)
A measure expressed as a percentage. This is the number of clickthroughs divided by the total number of times the page in question has been served (the number of page impressions).

An item that may be a static or moving image, a small extract of sound or all of these. Sometimes known as Video Clip or Clip Art

When content shown to a search engine differs to that appearing to a human user. This is done to favour higher ranking in search engine results. Search engines frown on this practice. Not to be confused with masking.

Content Management System (CMS)
An agreed set of templates, procedures and standard format software that enable numerous webmasters in an organisation to produce consistent and planned web pages.

The merging of functions provided by radios, televisions, computers and phones. Media also converge so we listen to radio on the TV and read newspapers on the Internet.

In the context of social media monitoring these include complaints, compliments, referrals, questions, problems, repetition and chatter.

Conversion rate
A percentage created by dividing the total number of visitors to a site by the number who carry out some act (such as placing an order or requesting information).

Text files transferred from a web site and stored on a user’s computer. The many functions include building profile data of visitors.

The extraction and use of information or resources from a large number of undefined people, effectively this is outsourcing as a result of an open call.

Customer relationship management (CRM)
An approach that stresses that suppliers and customers can benefit from conscious management of an extended, long term association rather than a series of short term transactions.

Digital Marketing Glossary: D

A single computer screen containing visual displays of performance information, usually from several sources, a type of portal.

Data fusion
The merging of data from different sources.

A collection of data on individuals or organisations that is structured in a way that data can be reorganised to provide meaningful information.

An approach used to analyse data when hypotheses have not been created. Each variable is cross-analysed against other variables in the study. The researcher looks for patterns.

Data mart
A collection of subject areas based on the needs of a given department.

Data mining
The procedure that selects and manipulates large amounts of data to uncover previously unknown relationships and patterns.

Data Warehouse
An extremely large database with a store of transactional data that allows the researcher to make useful analyses.

Dedicated Online Research Community (DORC)
A group of people brought together online specifically for the use in research. See MROC.

Deep linking
When a link is not the main page of another web site it is said to be a “deep link”.

Testing new products by allowing employees to use them.

Hardware device that plugs into a computer, usually at the USB port, to offer extra services such as software protection, broadband, Bluetooth etc.

Doorway page (gateway, jump page, bridge)
A page specifically designed to achieve high search engine listings. Often take users to another more useful page automatically.

Transferring data files to a local computer from a remote server, the content may appear to the user as email or web pages, but can also be done without the user’s knowledge. Compare with uploading.

Drag and drop
Online questionnaire feature whereby an item is selected and inserted into a specific position. Sometimes called Click and drag.

Drive-by downloads
Web sites that install code onto a visitor’s computer without that user’s knowledge. A form of malware.

Dropdown menu
online questionnaire feature that offers several options in a list or menu, this saves respondent time.

Trend whereby device users have two screens open at the same time e.g. using a tablet to investigate items shown on TV.

Dwell Time
A term to mean average time spent on a web page or site.

Dynamic packaging
An alternative to “package holidays”. Travellers organise their own hotel, flights and travel instead of using Package Holiday Firms.

Dynamic rotation
The delivery of ads that is related to cookies either in a random way (e.g. every nth visit) or a targeted way (specific users). Cf. hardwired ads.

Digital Marketing Glossary: E

Earned Media
Refers to advertising space that is not in the control of the advertiser. Offline this can include word of mouth, published letters, online it can include consumer blogs and social networks. Advertising space is not purchased but it can be influenced.

Text stored in digital format that can be seen by the human using an E-reader or computer.

Email marketing
Satisfying needs and wants by the use of electronic mail as a communication channel. This definition also extends to text messaging.

Performance indicators derived from traditional research or web analytics.

Electronic point (or processing) of sale (EPOS)
The use of technology, particularly the bar code, to allow swift transactions to take place in retail outlets. The records are a powerful form of internal secondary data. In research terms, this is mechanical observation.

Data is scrambled and can only be read with a code or key.

Activating something in the person that connects them to the marketing communication of an offering. A metric that is criticised because it is measured (and therefore defined) in many ways.

Purpose-built device that allows a book or article, stored as digital text, to be seen by a human.

A form of participant observation whereby the researcher spends time with the subjects who are under investigation.

A closed network of computers that goes outside an organisation to be made available to authorised users such as suppliers or distributors.

Small magazine or newsletter, usually distributed by email as an attachment or link. Offers the marketer PR opportunities.

Digital Marketing Glossary: F

Feature phones
Term to describe mobile phones as opposed to smartphones. The feature phone goes beyond the basic or standard mobile phone.

Copying content from the World Wide Web to local storage. This is done with web crawlers that are known as spiders, robots, or bots.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A way files are transferred across interconnected networks, used to upload and download content.

A software application designed to prevent unauthorised access to an organisation or individual user. Firewalls are important for any organisation with a web server.

Floating ads
Also known as ‘vokens’ or virtual tokens.The ad hovers over a web page.

Digital Marketing Glossary: G

A product in their own right but also an opportunity for advertising.

A non traditional medium (see advergaming).

Gigabyte (GB)
A measure of ability to store content.

Gigahertz (GHz)
An indication of how many instructions can be processed by a chip in a second of time.

Global Positioning System (GPS)
The precise location of a device is established by the use of satellites.

Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)
A standard for graphic images, downloading builds the image in several phases. JPEG format is an alternative.

Several questions for one respondent, which are similar, but which will result in different answers, are put together into a grid (or battery). A useful online questionnaire feature.

Digital Marketing Glossary: H

Handheld devices
Usually with wireless applications. Example include mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, smartphones and communicators.

Hardwired Ad
Advertisements that are located in a fixed position on a web page. Cf. dynamic rotation ads.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
A method used to allow web pages to be used easily, linked efficiently and to be visually appealing. Although the word “language” appears, this is not a programming language.

Version of HTML that allows audio and video to be used on web pages without plug-ins, especially important for smartphones.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http)
An agreed way, or standard, whereby data is transferred across interconnected networks.

Digital Marketing Glossary: I

Interruption marketing
Approaches to prospective customers which encroach on their daily affairs.

An interconnected network of computers across the planet which is open for anyone to use the services available.

Internet marketing
The use of public computer networks to satisfy demand for products and services.

Adverts that are set to come on screen at the moment when one page is replaced by the next page, it is effectively between one page and another.

A closed network of computers inside an organisation only available to authorised users.

Mobile operating system/platform developed for Apple, formerly known as the iPhone OS.

Digital Marketing Glossary: J

A programming language standard supported by Sun Microsystems. A competitor to ActiveX.

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
A standard for graphic images which allows fast downloading because of compression and slight loss of image quality. GIF format is an alternative.

Digital Marketing Glossary: K

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Measurements that allow managers to assess whether objectives will be met. They are usually quantifiable and will vary from organisation to organisation.

Words used to search for web pages of interest. Webmasters usually use them on web pages in order to help users to find the pages.

A point used to sell products or offerings. Traditionally this is a physical device, often located in a shopping area.

Digital Marketing Glossary: L

Landing pages
Also known as a “lead capture page”. A single webpage that acts as a place where users arrive from another promotion or a search engine, it may be self-explanatory and serve the objective. Very often landing pages leads users to other pages of interest. Landing pages are usually “optimised” to give good search engine results.

List broker
Intermediary who can provide numerous contact details for sales prospects from many list owners.

Listening platform vendors
Companies selling social media monitoring services (eg Alterian SM2, Radian6 and Sysomos).

List owner
Company or individual with a collection of contact details of numerous sales prospects. These may be for internal or external use.

Log file
A record of the download activity of a specific set of web pages. Log file analysers are used to make sense of the data. Useful to create online measures for marketing.

Digital Marketing Glossary: M

Term to describe different programs that can have a negative effect on a user’s computer. “Malicious software”, malware includes trojans, spyware and promotional programs.

Market Research Online Community (MROC)
A group of people brought together online specifically for use in research. See DORC.

Marketing metric
A measurement taken from the market place that may be indicative of financial performance. For example market share and perceived product quality.

Marketing mix
A four P classification checklist that offers a useful tool to analyse the status of any marketing situation.

Marketing research
Inquiry into the topic of marketing; it looks at the different aspects that must be considered when satisfying requirements. The process of providing information to assist in marketing decisions.

Marketing research mix
The four Ps that guide research: Purpose, Population, Procedure and Publication

A way to disguise comments or images from computer users so that their identity can be protected in a research context.

Mask URL
A web site address that has been created because the actual URL is either complicated or not easily memorised.

Mass customisation
The supply of products that match customer needs because customers select from a menu of options. These are mass produced (also see mass personalisation).

Mass marketing
The supply of products and services from a single source to many customers, this involves “one-to-many communication” as opposed to “one to one communication”.

Mass Personalisation
The supply of individualised and unique products that match customer needs because the producer and customer have collaborated at the pre-production stage. (also see mass customisation and prosumers).

A medium is the means of communication e.g. TV, radio, newspapers,magazines and the internet (in plural media).

Media broker
A company that acts as for an advertiser by negotiating with media owners.

Media owners
The owners of TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, web sites etc. that usually accept advertisements.

Facts about data. A description of the format, source, date of collection. Of great importance in data warehouses.

Meta search engines
Software that allows users to search several search engines simultaneously.

Meta tags
Words and keywords that describe a website, these are carefully placed in the pages’ HTML to assist search engine indexing.

Measurements that indicate the status of different activities.

Also known as a Micro Website. Several web pages that are developed in isolation from the main organisation’s website, usually dedicated to a single promotion, often temporary.

Mirror sites
Identical content that has been duplicated and located in a different location from the original Web sites mainly to cope with periods of heavy traffic.

This apparatus is needed to enable computers to interact over telephone lines.

A printed circuit board inside a PC. This has important components such as the CPU, memory modules and expansion cards.

Forcing the visitor to stay on a particular web page. Techniques include disabling browser features to prevent closing or moving back.

A file format for creating and storing compressed audio material such as speech and music.

A file format for creating and storing compressed audio and video material such as speech, music and films.

Data that incorporates animation, sound or images. Also known as rich media.

Digital Marketing Glossary: N

Term used to describe how users move between different pages on a web site.

Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex (NICAM)
A way to compress digital audio, used by TV broadcasters.

An online form of ethnography whereby the researcher interacts or spends time with the subjects under investigation.

The Internet registry domain names.

Digital Marketing Glossary: O

Activities that are made possible by computers, however they are not in networks and are not connected. Sometimes used to define activities that do not involve technology or computers at all – for example press ads are offline.

Offline metrics
Measurements of marketing outcomes (sales, complaints, comments, enquiries) collated from offline computer systems or paper-based records.

Activities that are made possible by computer networks and telecommunications systems that are connected.

Online contribution
The percentage of sales revenue attributable to customers who have transacted using the Internet.

Online service providers (OSPs)
An OSP is sometimes used to distinguish large Internet service providers (ISPs) from other access providers. OSPs often have a substantial content available to subscribers. All OSPs are also ISPs.

Open data
Data that is available to anyone that can be republished without fear of copyright restrictions. Especially applied to government data sources e.g. and in the USA.

Operating system
Allows hardware to work with software on a computer.

Owned Media
Refers to advertising space that is in the full control and ownership of the advertiser. Offline this can include trucks, premises signage, online it can include websites, corporate blogs. Therefore advertising space is not purchased.

Digital Marketing Glossary: P

Paid (or bought) Media
Include traditional and online advertising space that can be purchased.

Page impression
The viewing or downloading of a single web page.

Page view
The viewing or downloading of a single web page.

The panel is a set of individuals who are questioned or observed or who report over a period of time. Any changes can therefore be identified and if necessary, investigated. Online audience panel operators include Compete, Comscore, Hitwise and Nielsen.

Several  characters, usually six or more keystrokes used to gain access to hardware or software.

An addition to a program, used to solve a problem or to update software

Pay Per Click Advertising
An online advertisement that is hyperlinked to the advertiser may be charged on the basis of how much it is used or the number of times the ad is clicked on. A type of results-based payment. See cost per click cost per action.

Peer to Peer (P2P)
Concept for Internet commerce whereby fellow users transact or agree on their respective policies. Also a networking configuration where data is exchanged by different PCs rather than going via a centrally located server.

Permission marketing
Where customers give their consent to accept marketing communications from one or more companies.

Posing as someone, usually a known company, to entice an internet user into submitting personal data. (Fishing for data).

A program that must be downloaded to view content (e.g. animated images).

A way to publish files. Users subscribe and new files are received automatically. It began with sound but has moved to video. The word is a blending of the Apple branded name “iPod” and the word “broadcasting”

Paid, Owned, Earned Media, useful distinction. See individual entries.

Point of Presence (POP)
A location where a users can go online to a network, often by phone lines.

Pop up
Advertisement in a new window while a web page downloads.

Portable Document Format (PDF)
A way to view documents that preserves the original visual image.

A virtual workspace, usually a web page or site that allows the user to organise and share information.

Primary Data
Information that is collected for a specific purpose. The same information has not been available before.

The computer chip that is essential for the working of hardware and software, sometimes called the “brain of the computer”.

Progress bar or indicator
An online questionnaire feature indicating how much of the form is left for a respondent to complete.

Blending of the words em>Producer and Consumer, here the client and seller are closely involved in agreeing product specifications before production takes place.

Digital Marketing Glossary: Q

Qualitative Research
Studies that do not aim to quantify markets in any way. They aim to describe the depth and breadth of attitude, belief or opinion. Typical tools are focus groups, depth interviews and observation.

Quantitative Research
Studies designed to describe the quantity of some feature of a marketplace. That quantity may describe market size and market share. Typical tools are structured questionnaires and mechanical measuring devices.

Digital Marketing Glossary: R

Radio buttons
Online questionnaire feature that only allows one option to be selected.

Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID)
Method by which the products can be identified and located. A tag is attached to the item.

Random Access Memory
The desktop PC stores data in the RAM temporarily. When switched off the information is lost.

Unique individuals who view an advertisement expressed as a number.

Referring site
The website or search engine a user visited immediately before visiting one under analysis.

Repeat visitor
A user who visited web pages from the site under analysis on a previous occasion.

Return on advertising spend (ROAS)
Total revenue generated from referrer divided by the amount spent on advertising with referrer. So it is the revenue generated from each referrer.

Return on investment (ROI)
The profit generated from investment divided by the cost of investment.

Reverse auctions
Buyers list requirements and suppliers are invited to bid.

Data that incorporates animation, sound or images. Also known as multimedia.

Rich-media advertisements
Advertisements that provide animation, sound or interactivity.

Concentrated promotional exposure achieved by placing promotional messages on all services simultaneously. It originated with TV but can apply to any medium or network.

Research online, purchase offline. The situation where a customer searches for a product on the Internet, evaluates it and makes a decision to buy, but in an outlet that is physical.

Hardware or software that manages connections between networks.

Digital Marketing Glossary: S

A list of individuals who have agreed to receive e-mail messages.

A number of people selected from a population for questioning or study. The data collected is expected to assist understanding of the entire population.

The process of selecting parts from a defined population in order to examine these parts, usually with the aim of making judgements about the parts of the population that have not been investigated.

Sampling Frame
The basis by which respondents are selected; respondents are sampled from a frame. It can be a tangible list, such as a phone directory, or it might be a set of instructions.

A device used on questionnaires that measures attitudes. The scale commonly uses words or numbers. There are hundreds, among which are the Likert scale and the semantic differential scale.

Manual or automated fetching and extraction of information from user generated content for further scrutiny. This can be automated or done manually.

Search agents
Software that allows users to search for information taking the user’s specific needs into account. A sort of intelligent search engine.

Search engines
Software that allows users to search for information using keywords.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)
The practice of promoting web pages using search engines. This can be by improving the site design and/or by paid listings.

Search engine optimisation (SEO)
A way to affect the amount of traffic to a web page or web site by achieving a higher ranking in search results.

Secondary Data
Information that has been collected previously, probably for a specific purpose. Secondary data may be internal or external to the organisation.

The process of grouping individuals using geography, demographics, lifestyle, or other variables. One or more of these are selected as a target market.

Study of communication through careful analysis of signs.

The attitude a person is thought to have for a product, brand, organisation or idea. The attitude may be favourable or unfavourable, closer examination may reveal ambiguity.

Sentiment analysis
Also known as opinion mining, it can be carried out automatically by machines, or in by human observation and evaluation or both. It is usually classified as positive, negative or neutral but scales are also used to extend these three points.

A computer which is networked. The purpose is to supply information and “serve” the needs of other computers in the network.

Share of voice (SOV)
The percentage of communications allocated across the players in a specific market segment. Traditional techniques have expressed this as weight of advertising or PR activity in terms of media expenditure, pages used and audiences reached. Social media share of voice frequently refers to the number of brand mentions across blogs, social networks etc.

Short Message Service (SMS)
Text messaging.

Site audits
Auditors measure the usage for different sites as the number of ad impressions and clickthrough rates. (e.g. ABC and BPA).

Site visit
One person who visits the website.

A representation of a web site, either as a diagram or listing useful for visitors and site managers.

Skyscraper Ad
An advertisement that is long and tall.

A handheld device with advanced computing capability. The martphone goes beyond the “feature phone”, which itself goes beyond the basic or standard mobile phone. E.G. the iPhone, BlackBerry.

Snipping Tool
Facility available on some computers to allow selective (shaped) images to be identified then cut and pasted to be saved.

Social bookmarking
Sharing website addresses with other people using a public service  (e.g. delicious, digg, reddit and metafilter).

Social Graph
A model or representation of a social system that shows an individual’s associates through work, family, friendship, and social activities. These connections are extremely useful for marketing.

Social marketing
A word of mouth approach initiated by marketers but seems to come from online users, it creates Consumer Generated Media (CGM) to encourage individuals to influence their peers in regard to the product or service.

Social Media
An alternative to traditional media, usually based around user generated content. This includes blogs, social networks, chat rooms, video sharing, photo sharing, social bookmarking,

Social Media Monitoring
The use of techniques used to observe and register consumer generated comments, questions and conversations, usually concerning a specific brand or organisation or campaign. This is output aboutrather than by companies. Also known as text analytics.

Social networking
The process of linking individuals assisted by software and hardware.

Unwanted messages, sometimes considered as Junk mail (e-mail or text messages). Sent by a spammer.

Software regularly used by search engines to record details about web pages.

A worksheet with cells that can be filled with numbers to perform simple calculations.

Term to describe different programs that fall under the heading of Malware. Such programs can have a negative effect on a user’s computer or may be used for covert observation.

Splash page
A page that appears before the home page of a web site to provide language or regional options or simply a visual introduction to the site.

A phrase used to describe whether a site is able to hold a visitor. This can be quantified by the length of visit recorded in log files.

Drawings of the different stages of a campaign. This may be web page sequences, animated adverts etc. Used to communicate and test concepts before actually building a site or creating an advert.

Streaming media
Audio and visual content that appears in the user’s browser before the full content is fully downloaded.

Style guide
An agreed set of rules that governs how an organisation presents itself in promotions and more specifically web pages.

A type of interstitial but with Interactive adverts. These ads are set to come on screen at the moment when one page is replaced by the next page.

An unplanned activity whereby a computer user moves from one set of web pages to another.

Another word for the term ‘study’. It may be a census survey, a sample survey or a desk research survey. Many surveys use questionnaires, so the term is sometimes used, incorrectly, instead of the word ‘questionnaire’.

Digital Marketing Glossary: T

Tablet computer
A portable computer that is a solid block and has a touchscreen (e.g. iPad 2, IPod Touch, Playbook, Galaxy, Motorola, HP).

Observing the movements and behaviour of people using cookies, RFID or other techniques, this may be online or offline.

Terms of Use policy (ToU)
A website or online service requires users to accept.

Tertiary Data
Information that has been collected before and has been classified in some way. Examples of tertiary data are index pages in books, abstracts, citations, search engine results.

Test web site
A web site that is under development with the intention of replacing the existing, functional site.

A way to use a computer. The computer user simply uses a finger to touch a sensitive area, usually positioned nearby a keyboard. An alternative to the mouse.

A way to use a computer. The computer user simply uses a finger to touch areas on the visual display of the computer; the glass is touch-sensitive. An alternative to the keyboard and mouse.

The number of unique visitors to a web site over a time period (usually per hour, day or week). Also see valid traffic.

Trojan Horse
A program that appears to be useful and so infiltrates a system (malware).

Text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on Twitter’s author’s profile page and delivered to the author’s followers.

Digital Marketing Glossary: U

Uniform  or universal resource locator (URL)
The web address of a site.

An operating system developed in 1969.

Transferring data files to a server from a computer, this may be done by file transfer protocol (FTP). Compare with downloading.

Term used to describe whether hardware or software is easy to operate by intended users.

Usability tests
Term used to describe the procedures used to discover whether hardware or software is easy to operate.

Usenet newsgroup
An early way for users to share news on many topics over the Internet. This required specialist software, but now regular browsers offer access.

User-generated content
Information that has been created, knowingly or unknowingly, by individuals operating software or hardware. It may or may not be available to all users.

A short name chosen by the computer user. It is chosen to provide an identity to the on line world. It may disguise the user’s true identity.

Digital Marketing Glossary: V

Valid Traffic
The number of real human viewers who visit web pages as opposed to robot visits by search engines and other types of software.

A host within a medium which can carry an advertising message (e.g. a web site).

The rate at which an idea or tool or app travels through social media platforms. This is a valuable benchmark when compared with past campaigns. A measure is created for the market sector in question, for example it may be the number of mentions per hour or the number of app downloads per day.

A term used to describe the answers to open-ended questions that are captured, word for word, from a respondent.

Viral marketing
The use of E-mail to replicate and spread promotional messages in the market place. Sometimes known as Word of Mouse.

Virtual community
A grouping of people who communicate regularly about a topic of interest. This is usually on line using email or other Internet services.

Virtual mall
Several retailers agree to be part of a single web site allowing buyers to browse as they would in a real shopping mall.

A program that attaches itself to another program and will replicate further, mostly it will damage to software and sometimes hardware.

Measure of the number of sessions an individual user spends on a website or page.

Visit duration
The number of minutes an individual user spends on a website or page.

An individual user who spends time on a web page.

Voice of customer (VOC)
User feedback service, usually consisting of a web form with 4 questions. Commercial offerings include 4Q/iPercpetions, ForeseeResults, Kampyle and OpinionLabs.

See Floating ads.

Vox Pop
Small sound or vision clips of an individual making a specific point. The vox pop gives a qualitative indication of public opinion.

Digital Marketing Glossary: W

Walled garden
A number of services selected by providers for their customers, this may be on interactive Television, the internet or the telephone. These services are not accessible to non-customers and therefore hard or impossible to be measured by most media monitoring services.

The world wide web, also known as WWW.

Web application protocol (WAP)
A standard that enables mobile phones to access information from web pages.

Web analytics
Also known as website analytics. The capture and processing of data from software and hardware that produces performance indications (e-metrics).

Web analytics service vendors
Firms which specialise in providing  web site evaluation services, such as Coremetrics, Google Analytics, Omniture and Webtrends.

Web browsers
Software used to view information stored on the World Wide Web.

A website used as a personal journal and for sharing experiences, commonly known as “the blog”. Also used to refer to log files software that records all website activity

A broadcast in sound or vision (or both) transmitted over the world wide web.

Educational, informational or promotional seminars that use the world wide web as a transmission medium. They may use internet telephony, web cams and file sharing.

The person responsible for maintenance of a web site.

Web page intexts
One of many formats of advertisement available. A form of contextual advertising whereby certain words on a web page deliver an advert when clicked or when rolled over with the mouse.

Web ring
Several web sites with a common theme. Hyperlinks take the user from one site to another. It is a form of promotion.

Web servers
Computers used to store web sites and their corresponding databases.

Wide Area Information Service (WAIS)
An Internet service. It has effectively been replaced by the World Wide Web.

Wide Area Network (WAN)
A network that goes beyond a building.

Small programs that display a feature on a webpage (e.g. calendar or hit counter).

WiFi Network
WiFi is a clipping of “wireless fidelity”. Data is transmitted, without wires, as a radio signal, to a local router. The local router is wired to the internet. It usually has a short range, is not a secure network but can be set up quickly.

The wiki is a form of CGM. The word is a clipping of “WikiWiki”, a word from Hawaii which means “quick” it describes pages that can be modified by visitors, this may be an entire site or simply a feedback or review section. For the marketeer wikis provides secondary data, authors are able to discuss products freely to provide reviews/feedback to other users. Marketers can encourage customers to engage with their products by reviewing or recommending them in wikis.

Operating system and platform. Also available for mobiles.

Windows Media Audio (WMA)
The Microsoft version of the MP3, a file format for creating and storing compressed audio material such as speech and music.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
A standard that allows users to access information on handheld devices.

Wireless Markup Language (WML)
An accepted standard for displaying mobile pages.

A program to assist the user to do something in simple stages, for example setting up a new routine.

Word Cloud
Visual representations of the vocabulary used with greater prominence given to important content.

Word of Mouth Marketing
A way of promoting products, services or ideas by the spoken word.

Word of Mouse Marketing
See Viral Marketing.

World Wide Web
A way to make information available to the public using the Internet, commonly known as “the web”.

A program that duplicates itself (malware).

Digital Marketing Glossary: X

Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Allows a computer to communicate with another. Superior to HTML.

Digital Marketing Glossary: Y

Digital Marketing Glossary: Z